Total economic losses from disasters across the world were an estimated USD 165 billion in 2018, with around USD 155 billion resulting from natural catastrophes and the remainder from man-made events. The total was less than half that experienced in 2017 (USD 350 billion), and was below the inflation-adjusted average of USD 220 billion of the previous 10 years. Last year’s lower losses reflect the absence of a very large event occurrence. Catastrophe losses in 2018 were 0.19% of global gross domestic product (GDP), below the 10-year average of 0.28%. Sigma report 2019. (Sigma report Swiss Re)
Many initiatives were taken by different countries since IDNDR decade to Yokohama strategy, Hyogo framework of Action and now Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction. Global communities have shown strength in sharing know how and resources for helping countries in distress. These efforts have helped in changing the contour of disaster risk governance. In India it has shown its result in bringing down the number of deaths in disasters. Cyclone HudHud, Phylin and Fani are the key examples in this direction; Kerala floods 2018 and 2019 have been devastating. A Bihar flood of 2017 is another devastating flood. In urban areas- Chennai, Surat, Mumbai, J&K and Patna floods are also classic. Some good stories to tell but some bad stories are also there for learning.
India is experiencing a huge economic loss in almost all the disasters-be it floods, cyclone, fire, earthquake etc. Kerala floods 2018 has created an economic loss of almost INR 26000 crores , where its recovery needs are of Rs 32000 approx. Similarly, Cyclone Fani has also lost nearly INR 280000 crores with recovery need of INR 31000 crores. Economic loss and number of affected people are on rise and here lies the challenge. The setting up of disaster governance system right from the national, state to local level has helped the people in saving their lives but the number of affected people and economic loss are increasing on a regular basis. Every loss is forcing government to dovetail their regular development funds in addressing post disaster need. This is leading to growth gap of which poor pay the largest brunt.
Disaster is a issue of development governance. Protection of the citizen’s from the disaster is a constitutional Right under the fundamental rights of Right to Life with dignity. Threeimportant convention have been adopted in 2015 by the global communities which are i) Sendai Framework for DRR, ii) Paris agreement on Climate change and iii) Sustainable development Goals , The time period has been agreed for achieving targets is fifteen years i.e. up to the year 2030. Five years are already over. Hence now thedeliberations would be drafted for remaining ten years.
2nd National Platform which was held in 2017 also deliberated on this topic and recommended following items:
The key recommendations of the session:
In last three years many initiatives have been taken by different stakeholders. 15th Finance Commission submitted their report. Chapter 6 of the report is dedicated to Disaster Risk Management (FC used the term first time). Finance commission, for the first time allocated the budget for ex-ante risk reduction. The creation of National Disaster Response and Mitigation Fund, State Disaster Response and Mitigation Fund has created of hope ex-ante governance of risk management. The session would help the identifying some key points which may go in the guidelines to be drafted by NDMA by the end of July 2020.